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Annotated bibliography of Animal domestication Paper

Introduction

Domestication of Animals is a particularly interesting subject to me because these animals are some of the most important companions to humans. Besides that, they are also the most important sources of food to human food ie they provide human there are sources of protein. It is therefore important to understand how the man managed to forge such a relationship with the creatures. It is also particularly interesting to see that some domestic animals near their companions in the wild life category. For example, cats and panthers belong to the same family and so the dogs and wolves.

These similarities create a lot of interest in the history of animals due to the fact that one can wonder why some closely related animals are domesticated while others are not. Furthermore, it would be interesting to know how the knowledge of domestication spread to other parts of the world or whether it is a journey of discovery for each ancient community. Therefore, the latter paper will shed some light on the puzzle by providing a detailed account of who, when, how and where animal domestication.

With regard to the topic, I'd expect to see that the domestication of animals is done in different geographical regions and different times. Additionally, I would also expect to find that this process is something unique to people in different societies had to do it in their own way. I also expect to find that the domestication of animals is a process synonymous with the Neolithic period. Therefore, the focus of the paper is at this time in history.

After research, it was found that the domestication was in fact occur in different times for different animals and in different geographical areas. Therefore, to understand the process of domestication, most likely one to place the study of geographical and historical context.

Research findings

Encyclopedia Britannica (1990): domestication, 19th Edition, London, McMillan

The Encyclopedia Britannica (1990) describes the process of domestication as reorganizing wild animals and cultivated plants and domestic forms in juxtaposition with the people's interests. Strictly speaking, domestication refers to some of the earliest stages of mastering wild animals and plants. The main difference between wild animals and local is the latter was created to meet the unique needs of people. Moreover, domestic animals are bound to continue to care that people created for them by adapting to this process. Domestication of animals is certainly one of the highlights of human development particularly in relation to the issue of material culture. Agriculture is also redefined after animals' domestication now because it is seen as a combination of combination of both plant and animal production.

The latter book, it is asserted that the first attempt on animal domestication occurred during the Mesolithic period. As early as 9000 BC, some Hunters and gatherers have attempted to tame sheep, goats, dogs and perhaps some pigs. However, it is only until the Neolithic era in which animals are tamed. At that time, agriculture is considered as a form of social activity and domestication of animals have become part of that process. The domesticated animals during this year included pigs, dogs, sheep, cattle and cats. Other domestic animals such as rabbits appeared in subsequent s period of history during the Middle Ages. Some animals such as bees were domesticated at the end of the Neolithic period. The latter animals are domesticated for the purpose of providing sweet. Honey has been an instrumental part of human nutrition for years to come. In fact, it was only two hundred years ago when the commodity has ceased being just sweetener.

Fuller, D. (2006): Agricultural origins in Southeast Asia, World Prehistory Journal, 20, 42

The latter book gives some insight about the relationship between domestic animals and their wild ancestors. According to the author, the similarities between the latter category of animals is usually done by comparison of the function and structure. Also, knowledge borrowed from the cyto-genetic realms to compare the genes and gene sets are also particularly insightful in understanding the process of domestication. Usually, the biochemical and morphological studies have done the most important in understanding the relationship.

The latter book is insightful in understanding changes in animals has undergone since the first attempts at domestication is so deep that it is often depicted by the differences between different breeds of animals. It is also important to note that the most fundamental changes associated with domestication of animals with regard to their reproduction. Wild animals tend to reproduce by severe seasonal means or molting rhythms. On the other hand, domestic animals are often working in almost any time of year and there is very little molting occurs in the middle of it. The overall appearance and structure of domestic animals is fundamentally different from that of its wild ancestor.

During the onset of domestication, elementary recessive genes are normally drawn from the animals under consideration and common genes in the form required framework for creating changes that serve the domestic pig function in animals. Nature is a way of hiding some recessive genes in wild animals, the active genes are usually produced by the process of mutation between the groups under consideration. The latter is commonly utilized by human effort exploits the breeding patterns in such a way that emphasized the qualities that can cater for the needs people.

In other words, this is what is known as artificial selection. Artificial selection is fundamentally different from natural selection due to the fact that natural selection, a stabilized biological system was created where a certain species can survive in the wild. On the other hand, artificial selection seeks to break down the biological system stable even making a gene combination will make the animals under consideration will not survive in the wild.

Savona-Ventura, C. & Mifsud, A. (1997): The Maltese Neolithic domesticated mammals, London, Athlone Press

In their book, Savona-Ventura and Mifsud (1997) settle in the process of domestication from the Maltese perspective. The latter location was chosen because it is an important archaeological site and is home to one of the richest sources of pre-historic art. This area is particularly interesting due to the fact that the drawings reflected early domestic animals such as pigs, goats, cattle and sheep. There are also a number of the skeletal remains to justify the study and some animals have uncovered including horses, cats and dogs. Some exotic animals have also been domesticated by people including the rabbit, turtle and even the hedgehog.

The number of depictions found in the Islands might indicate that the artifacts are not brought to the Maltese Islands. Instead, Neolithic people just found them there and chose to tame them. The latter assertions can be supported by some neat skeleton remains found within its site pliocestocene deposit. Pre-historic cave art also suggests that the Neolithic society at that time was a hunter - gatherer of society.

The latter study was also instrumental in highlighting the history of domestication of sheep in the Islands. An art facility in one of the slabs within of this site indicates images of rams with a curved front and coil needs. It also suggests the latter may be ancestors of modern drawings sheep. This is because The average measurement of a ram's or EWE front of approximately the skeletal remains over the location. When it comes to the goats, it was found that Maltese goat has striking resemblance to the Egyptian one and this is why ultimately the author asserted that Egypt will be the main source. According to them, its large front lappets in his throat and prove their claims. In other words, domestication of animals occurred by introduction from other geographical locations would say Egypt.

Neolithic temples on certain Borg in Nadur and Mnajdra Sa region of Malta, one can see that there is indeed a striking resemblance between the present day pork and pork reliefs from the late Temple. This analogy is more closely associated with the former category than in the wild boar. On the other hand, the Maltese swine probably a descendent of the wild boar as depicted by some skeletal remains. Finally, the skeletal remains of dogs can be seen such as the Caves of Xemxihja. It is asserted that these remains indicated a lean animal with a prominent spine. This suggests that there maybe a similarity between the dog and the terrier. Cat skeletal remains have also been found in the latter mentioned cave. The specimens found are generally much smaller than modern cats but it suggests that they were domesticated by Neolithic man at that time.

Hber, A. & Decorations, T. (2004): Analyzing the process of domestication - Hagoshrim as a case study, Journal of archaeological science, 31, 1600

The latter journal mainly focused on the process of domestication by using Israel based on a Neolithic site known as Hagoshrim. In this study, greater emphasis is given to cattle, pigs and caprines since the skeletal fragments in the area most represent the mammals. By using the latter site, it is possible to understand the process of domestication across time and space. This is because there are three layers skeletal remains found in the latter area.

Three parameters were used to study this process with them;

  • Changes body size
  • Size reductions
  • Kill off patterns

The latter authors found that the pig remains found is reflective of the changes that occurred during the seventh millennium. In other words, the skeletal pieces from the first layer is fundamentally different from the lips of the second and third layer. This suggests that the process of domestication of pigs is associated with this time in history (7th millennium).

On the other hand, might still indicated completely different process of domestication. With regard to this, post cranial size and size were found to gradually between the three layers of skeletal remains. Therefore, it may be said that the cattle domestication occurred between a series of time and eventually mammal is one of the latest events that occurred during that time. Finally, the caprines indicated no significant skeletal changes across the three layers of historical sites so shows that it may be the earliest mammal to be domesticated in all other mammals.

All in all, it is said that by the end of the book, you can understand one The life history of some of the most common domestic animals through the process of domestication. Eventually the description, it is said that some mammals based on their atmosphere of somewhat earlier than others. In others words it is the order of mammals which followed, it was the first goat, then the pig and finally cow.

Kuijt, I. (2000): Life in Neolithic farming communities - identity, social organization and differentiation, Springer Publishers

The latter book is particularly valuable in providing a context domestication of animals. While this book can handle the subject of domestication only as a subtopic or a chapter, the overall theme of Neolithic man is important in placing domestication in context. The author begins by defining the real time frame for the Neolithic period in this case began as far back as 9500 BC in the Middle East. The latter period also highly associated with human technology.

At the beginning This time, greater emphasis is given to agriculture and at the end of it, people began to use metal tools that are important in brass or bronze age. By book this, one can understand that during the Neolithic is not a pre-set consecutive season, instead, one must treat it as a collection of cultures and behavioral traits which domestication of both animals and crops is an important aspect. Climatic conditions forced people to look for other ways to help others so needed by plants and crops thus develop agriculture. Domestication of animals is a natural part of this process. However, most of the changes in the Neolithic period is not occur simultaneously. Instead, various elements of culture is adopted by different categories of people.

When one analyzes Neolithic occurrences in different parts of the world, it was found that the domestication of animals in some parts of the world occurred much earlier and then it was others. For example, the earliest attempts at farming and therefore domestication of animals occurred in the Near East. It is also doubtful whether existing communities settled in other areas such as Britain. By 9000 BC, other communities began adopting sedentary lifestyles such as Asia Minor and eventually North Africa and Mesopotamia. However, it is particularly interesting to note that the domestication attempt was done independently to specific regions of the world like South Asia, Southeast Asia and Africa. Therefore, the use of domesticated animals is a feature that is unique to certain regions in the world and it also formed an important part of culture.

All in all, the latter book important application of human domestication of a historical context. By the book, one can understand some of the factors that pushed people to domesticating animals and living a sedentary lifestyle altogether.

Bellwood, P. (2004): First Farmers - the source of the agricultural society, Blackwell Publishers

Eventually book, the author discusses some of the reasons behind the domestication of animals and the process itself. One such reason is the withering away of hunting and gathering lifestyle and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. In the process of carrying it out, people felt it was important to bring the animals he used to look closer to him. The Some of the factors that determined the choices included lifespan, mating patterns, diet, behavior and the size of the animal.

Man is asked to select certain animals over others due to the fact that few offered him more advantage. For example, cattle and goats offered human milk and is thus serve as a renewable source of protein. Besides this, some animals are selected for their ability to carry out both manual and labor still a source of food. Other animal can offer people wool, hides and even fertilizer. There are millions of animals that people had the option of domesticating, but he chose to settle for 14 non-proved to be the most useful to him.

By the end of the book, one can understand some of the propellants of early domestication. Furthermore, It is possible to understand why people chose their domesticated animals while simultaneously ignoring the others. This book is important in placing the subject in context.

Hayden, B. (1992): Models of domestication, Madison, Prehistory Press

The latter book, the author explains how people choose to move from a hunter gatherer lifestyle to a more sedentary. Furthermore, the geographical explanation of where the domestication of animals occurred also highlighted text.

The Middle East region is one of the areas that started this phenomenon. The latter region began the domestication of camels. Climatic conditions are harsher getting started in this region, because there, there was a need to look for desirable places to live. The people of the region of the Middle East then decided to move to their domesticated animals in different parts of the Afro-Eurasia. Therefore, the signs of domestication of animals spread very rapidly to other parts of the world. Climatic conditions also an important role to play in determining the distribution of animals. This is because the crops and domesticated plants that people are better suited to certain environmental conditions.

In the book, it is asserted that animal domestication spread quickly in North Africa and Eurasia since there are similarities in climatic conditions. However, The same can not be said of some parts of the world like South Africa that are not supported by animals or plants. Taking the example of African zebu - The animal eventually falls maybe category but it is unique from all other breeds because the better it will suit pretty hot area of Central Africa. Additionally, the Bovines are separated also breeds more suited to wealthy Crescent. Other animals such as Ilama can not be exported to other sections of the world because of the Panama isthmus prevented their movement. Therefore, in addition to climatic conditions, the spread of domestication of certain animals is also hampered by geographical factors.

Rindos, D. (2003): The Origins of Agriculture - A revolutionary perspective, academic Press

The latter book addresses some of the causes and effects of early agriculture forms during the Neolithic era. According to the explanation made by this author, domestication of animals and plants are necessitated by religious goals, crowding, stress and discovery. With regard to the first reason, the latter the author explains that some excavations done Catalhoyuk illustrate the fact that the Neolithic revolution by some of the early settlers preceded the process of agricultural development. The explanation, it is asserted that there is revolutionary transition in human psychology. In other words, people believed about her world is changing and the symbol to be utilized to implement these perceptions can be seen in his community rituals. Examples symbols are included

  • Aurohcs front
  • Fat figurines

Therefore, that anthropologists believe that people join sa domesticated animals to fulfill this revolutionary period.

The latter author also attempts to create a scenario in which one can understand this domestication process by other explanations such as discovery and stress. He explains that the domestication was brought by a discovery which was carried out by food gatherers. The latter group needed to move from camp to camp and they realized that they needed support with their animals. Also, late categories of people are very responsible for language and culture exist in the world because it is known today. Therefore, it may be said that they are the ones who spearheaded the changes it.

Bahn, P (2004): The atlas of world archeology: Brown Reference Group Publishers

The latter book is particularly valuable in understanding some of the consequences of the domestication of animals. First of all, it should be noted that the domestication of animals reduced the need for a life of hunting and gathering living. Therefore, a sedentary lifestyle lead to greater increases in population. When the person is still a hunter or a gatherer, such as a living which affect the number of children one can have because of constant movement inhibited carrying more than one child. After the domestication of animals, the people had a steady source of food and had no need to look at it in the wild. This led to greater rates of birth and also to greater numbers of social groups in different communities.

On the birth of more children and the continued increase in population, the population began expanding beyond what was anticipated. The latter led to specific forms of social organization such as government. There are more food surpluses, so society has started forming a society elite is not directly involved in the production process such as agriculture that dominated the community in other perspectives.

It should also be noted that With the domestication of animals, it is now possible for people to carry out a number of economic and social events. For example, through this economic empowerment, people can have more children and eventually began emerging social class. The Neolithic revolution characterized by the domestication of animals eventually led to a class based society. In fact earlier established social class divisions in which the individual possessed the greatest amount of wealth. The times, the wealth will be judged by the number of animals or one that claims by the amount of land owned by one. On the other hand, it also said that animal domestication created most of the foundations of society as we know it today. For example, because the human food security now that he knew where it was and when he can eat it, then start building more settlements and villages have started changing lifestyles are synonymous with pre-Neolithic lifestyles. In fact the following diagram illustrates how these changes occur

Bands

Tribes

chiefdoms

state

empires

When people are still in Hunters and gatherers, they have no other time but in hunting or gather. However, when there was a steady source of food and people have settled down, then it is possible to specialize in the making. This is why Neolithic settlements copper claims, baskets, leather etc. domestication of animals caused more agreement that led to an egalitarian society.

McNamara, J. (2005): Cats, Dogs, Climate and During the Neolithic, Oxford Publishers

According to the late author, Dogs are some of the earliest domesticated animals, about 100,000 years ago. notion that it is consistent to the fact that Native Americans are dogs but not posses any other domestic animals that they brought with them from the Asian continent. things will be further understood by making a comparison with other types of Neolithic settlements in the same location. Within the Americas, other communities were agriculturally based. However, Native Americans in pre Columbian times were hunter gatherers but they only possessed dogs. Historical facts indicate that the dogs could have originated from China. Dogs was instrumental in Neolithic people because they are protected crops and his people from invaders.

Cats on the other hand tamed after a few years. This could has been as a result of vermin (rats, etc.) that emerged out of the surpluses in food production. Feared cats so people the opportunity to get rid of the vermin. Archaeological evidence points to Egypt as the source of the cats. The latter organism has come so much later than other domestic animals to influence the course of the Neolithic revolution.

Conclusion

Domestication of animals is a complex process that is the subject of various studies. In some situations, some authors are treated in a dichotomous process while the other texts, it is referred to as an ongoing one. Irrespective of the stance that the author one choose to do, the domestication of animals is not a step technique and in fact took place through certain levels. However, there are still a number of the generalizations that can be done about domestication. For example, domestication of almost all animals began with a loose relationship between man and beast. This meant that animals under consideration began breaking off from associations with wild ancestors. At the time, people-to-animal connection has become so tight that they led to heightened levels of cooperation and eventually total confidence of domestic animals to humans.

Through literature review, it is also shown that in order for the domestication to occur, then it must be accompanied by structural adaptations necessary to exist within the home environment. In other words, wild animals remained as they are because they do not undergo any form of interference from man, it can be either directly or indirectly. On the other hand, domestic animals depends on everyone for their nutrition, survival and reproduction. Without isolating an animal from the rest of its population, then not be fully en to tame it.

It is also essential to understand that the current local wildlife seen today is the result of a series of domestication changes happening all the time. It can be seen as transitional skeletal remains found by a number of archeologists or anthropologists. Also, some of the transitional cases may not necessarily be completely tamed as some of them may still be able to live in the wild. Examples here include reindeer, camels or elephants. This will give an important fact, that domestication should not only be considered as a reproductive phase where the animals are completely isolated from their wild ancestors, rather than some flexibility should be maintained regarding the possibility of semi-domestication.

Most of the activities conducted domestication of animals also shows that major difference between the type or stage of domestication was brought by the varying degrees of control that people may have put reproduction, safety of life and nutrition of animals. To breed while in captivity, an animal must be pre-adapted to the environment. The way of change or the rate at which an animal can be tamed depends on factors. Therefore, the different stages of domestication for various animals are brought on by various physiological, behavioral, ecological features and most importantly, animals are being useful to people.

Domestication is therefore a process that can best be met by a combination of factors that include the relative scarcity or availability of a specific species, changes related to demographic parameters such as age distribution, shape, body size and appearance of various pathologies. All of these criteria relates to showing exactly what one stage of domestication consider and the relative timing is needed to reach that process. Also, the literature has shown that certain animals were domesticated first hand while others are dispersed or introduced to a specific geographical location.

For all the latter studies on domestication of domestic animals by Neolithic man, a series of questions still remain unanswered and may provide possible sources of future research. For example, there is very little information showing how various domestic animals are related to each other in different regions. Most research has generally focused on timings or stage but not differences in geography. Besides this, there is a need for a comprehensive review of some of the differences.

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